*The drug prescribed will depend on the individual, the cholesterol level, other problems, and the doctor’s preferences.
Nicotinic acid derivatives
- Nicotinic acid (niacin) has proven cholesterol-lowering effects when given in daily doses exceeding 1 gram. However, such doses cause flushing and rashes. Treatment with nicotinic acid should be supervised by a doctor, who can advise on how to increase the dosage over three or four weeks and minimise the risk of side effects.
- Besides nicotinic acid/niacin preparations, there is a nicotinic acid derivative, acipimox (Olbetam). Side effects are less of a problem with this drug, and it may well be the drug of choice if dietary and lifestyle modifications prove ineffective, although safety in long-term use has not been established.
- These drugs can reduce LDL cholesterol levels by as much as 18%, and at the same time raise HDL cholesterol levels.
- – Bezafibrate (Bezalip). Its primary effect is to reduce triglyceride levels. It also increases the breakdown of LDL particles, thus lowering the LDL Cholesterol level in the bloodstream.
- – Clofibrate (Atromid-S) is gradually becoming obsolete. New derivatives have proved just as effective with fewer side effects.
- – Fenofibrate (Lipanthyl) lowers VLDL and LDL cholesterol levels and raises HDL levels.
- – Gemfibrozil (Lopid) reduces VLDL and LDL cholesterol by decreasing the synthesis of VLDL in the liver. It also raises low levels of HDL cholesterol.
- – Ciprofibrate (Modalim) reduces VLDL and LDL cholesterol levels.
General Anaesthetic Agents
The mechanism by which anaesthetic drugs produce unconsciousness is still unknown. Meyer in 1899 and Overton in 1901 noted that within any group of drugs, anaesthetic potency correlates well with lipid solubility, and most modern theories agree that the site of action is probably the lipid bilayer of nerve cell membranes, or possibly a protein receptor in this situation, but further knowledge is limited.
Anaesthetic practice is unique in that a high proportion of the drugs are administered by the inhalational route. Such agents must either be gaseous, or the vapour of volatile liquids (Various Authors 1984).
Of the original three inhalational agents – nitrous oxide, ether and chloroform – the first two are still used widely.
Synopsis of Important Principles
- The main aim of anaesthesia is the prevention of pain during surgery and at other times.
- Anaesthesia involves a balanced approach, in which the individual patient’s psyche and pathophysiology are taken into account and drugs are used to modify and control any aspect as required.
- The decision to use a particular drug or technique must be made after careful consideration of the pathophysiological features of the individual case and how these may affect the pharmacokinetic handling and tissue response to the drugs available.
- Any associated disease or pathophysiological abnormality should wherever possible be treated or corrected before operation, and potentially dangerous physiological disturbances avoided during and after anaesthesia.
- Anaesthetic drugs are relatively non-toxic but there are some important effects. Halothane is occasionally associated with hepatitis and methoxyflurane with kidney damage. Malignant hyperpyrexia, the aetiology of which is uncertain, is a rare but often fatal condition which can be triggered off by several anaesthetic drugs in genetically susceptible individuals.
Cathartics and Enemas
Although the use of cathartics and enemas is traditional, these measures are most unlikely to reduce absorption since this usually occurs rapidly in the upper small intestine. They can only add to the misery and discomfort of the patient Efficacy in removal of drug has never been established. In one recent study, saline catharsis had no beneficial effect whatsoever on the absorption of aspirin taken with charcoal (Sketris et al. 1982).
Whole Gut Lavage
One situation where attempts to empty the bowel may be helpful is in poisoning with ‘slow’ or ‘timed release’ formulations. The number of such preparations on the market is increasing and since they usually contain a much larger dose of drug than ordinary tablets, intoxication may be severe and prolonged.
Haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, haemoperfusion, exchange transfusion and forced diuresis have all been used in attempts to increase the rate of removal of drugs and poisons. However, the amount of active drug removed is often disappointingly small, and the indications for the use of such measures is very limited.
Nevertheless, poisoned patients are often unnecessarily subjected to these potentially harmful measures, and the literature is full of anecdotal accounts of miraculous recovery attributed to such treatment (Winchester et al. 1977). Properly controlled clinical trials are difficult to carry out, and very few have been published. With the possible exception of forced alkaline diuresis for poisoning with salicylate and long acting barbiturates such as phenobarbitone, none of these methods for enhancement of drug removal has ever been shown to reduce morbidity or mortality in poisoned patients (Todd 1984).
Indeed, some studies suggest the opposite result. This is not to say that such measures are never necessary, or indeed sometimes life saving, but a more critical appraisal of their role is required.
Brand name Glyset, Miglitol is prescribed for treating Diabetes Type 2 . This is an Antidiabetic medication. Generic Ingredients are :- Acarbose, Precose.
General Information of the drug
- Miglitol works differently from other oral antidiabetes drugs, which control blood sugar levels by increasing the production of insulin or helping the body to use the hormone more efficiently.
- Miglitol delays the digestion of carbohydrates (sugars) by acting in the cells that line the small intestine, where sugar is absorbed. This results in less sugar being absorbed into the blood and therefore, a lower blood-sugar level.
- Miglitol also has some effect against the enzyme lactase, but usually does not cause lactose intolerance. Hypoglycemia (very low blood sugar) is unlikely with miglitol because of the way the drug works in diabetes.
A Benzodiazepine sedative class type of dug , Clorazepate is generic drug name for Gen-Xene, Tranxene, Tranxene-SD , Tranxene T-Tab. It is commonly prescribe for treating several conditions :-
- symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal,
- partial seizures,
- irritable bowel syndrome,
- and panic attacks.
General Information of the drug
- Clorazepate dipotassium is a benzodiazepine, which directly affect the brain. This drug is a central-nervous-system depressant, and can relax you and make you more tranquil or sleepier, or they can slow nervous system transmissions in such a way as to act as an anticonvulsant.
- Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy,
- appetite stimulation and weight-loss prevention in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
- Dronabinol is a legal form of marijuana. The psychoactive chemical in marijuana is delta-9-THC. Dronabinol has all of the psychological effects of marijuana and is therefore considered to be a highly abusable drug.
- Dronabinol increases the effects of alcohol, sleeping pills, sedatives, and other depressants.
- Dronabinol also enhances the effects of psychoactive drugs including tricyclic antidepressants, amphetamines, cocaine, and other stimulants.
Gastric Aspiration and Lavage
Although unabsorbed drug in the stomach may be removed by gastric aspiration and lavage its usefulness in practice has been seriously questioned (Proudfoot 1984). Most drugs and poisons seem to be absorbed rapidly and this technique is unlikely to be productive more than 4 hours after ingestion, unless gastric emptying has been delayed by opioid analgesics, anticholinergic agents, central nervous system depressants, and possibly salicylates. In such circumstances gastric lavage may be worthwhile up to 12 hours after ingestion.
It is said to be contraindicated after ingestion of corrosives and hydrocarbons such as paraffin because of the risks of perforation and lipoid pneumonia, respectively.
An Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitor ( or ACE ) , Enalapril is commonly prescribe for treating several conditions :-
- Hypertension ( high blood pressure ),
- heart failure,
- diabetic kidney disease,
- and heart attack treatment ( when the function of the left ventricle has been affected),
- kidney failure,
- kidney hypertension,
- managing people with a high risk of heart disease,
- chronic kidney disease,
- preventing a second stroke.
General Information of the drug
Lexxel is generic drug prescribes for Hypertension. It is of Antihypertensive combination. Generic Drug Ingredients are Enalapril and Felodipine.
- Lexxel contains 5 mg of felodipine, a calcium channel blocker, and 5 mg of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. The 2 drugs in this combination belong to widely prescribed groups of hypertension medication.
- Lexxel is not meant for the initial treatment of hypertension.
- Most people taking this product have taken 1 of the ingredients as an individual pill and need more medication to control their blood pressure.
Mupirocin is generic drug for Topical Antibiotic usage. Brand Drug prescription – Bactroban. This drug is prescribed for Impetigo (streptococcal skin infections), eczema, inflammation of the hair follicles, and minor bacterial skin infections.
General Information of the drug
- Mupirocin nasal is used to prevent resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections from spreading during outbreaks of the infection.
- Mupirocin can also be used to treat diaper rash.
- Mupirocin is a unique, non-penicillin drug that works against the common microorganisms that cause impetigo in children.
- It is used to supplement other treatments for impetigo, although many doctors prefer oral medication.
- Mupirocin works by interfering with bacteria’s ability to make the proteins it needs for survival.
- Large amounts of mupirocin kill bacteria and smaller amounts stop the bacteria from growing. It may be effective against antibiotic- resistant bacteria.
The idea that drug concentrations could be measured and used to guide therapeutic decisions was first applied to quinidine when it was used to convert the cardiac rhythm of patients with atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm (Sokolow & Ball 1956).
Although quinidine is rarely used for this purpose today, because of the advent of DC cardioversion, this study is still almost unique because it defined a target concentration based upon both the probability of therapeutic success and of toxicity.
Therapeutic drug monitoring is based upon the collaboration between a health care provider (clinician, pharmacist, nurse) responsible for making quantitative and qualitative decisions about drug treatment and the clinical laboratory providing analytical services for the measurement of drug concentrations. The information provided by a drug concentration measurement is generally greater than for other substances measured by the laboratory.
This is because, unlike say sodium or glucose, the intake of a drug is quite well known and the processes of distribution and elimination are usually very simple and not under the control of a multitude of homeostatic controlling reflexes.
Entacapone is an ‘Antiparkinsonian‘ generic drug for treating Parkinson Disease. Brand Drug prescription – Comtan.
- Chronic (persistent) disorder of part of the brain, which affects the way the brain co-ordinates the movements of the muscles in various parts of the body.
General Information of the drug
Entacapone is always used in combination with levodopa + carbidopa. It is prescribed For Parkinson’s disease patients for whom levodopa + carbidopa loses its effectiveness between doses.
Fosfomycin is generic drug for treating Urinary Anti-Infection. Brand Drug prescription – Monurol.
- Prescribed for treating Uncomplicated urinary infection, Fosfomycin kills a variety of bacteria ( by preventing bacteria from sticking to the wall of the urinary tract and by interfering with bacterial cell division).
- In the body, it is converted to its active form—free fosfomycin.
- Generally, bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics are not resistant to fosfomycin, so this drug may work where others have failed.
Do not take fosfomycin if you are allergic or sensitive to any of its ingredients.
Amiodarone is generic drug name for Cordarone , Pacerone . It is prescribed for treating Abnormal Heart Rhythms.
- Amiodarone works by decreasing the sensitivity of heart tissue to nervous impulses within the heart. It should be prescribed only in situations where the abnormal rhythm is so severe as to be life-threatening and does not respond to other drug treatments.
- It has not been proven that people taking this drug will live longer than those with similar conditions who do not take it.
- Amiodarone may exert its effects 2-5 days after you start taking it, but often takes 1-3 weeks to affect your heart.
- Amiodarone’s antiarrhythmic effects can last for weeks or months after you stop taking it.
How does the drug Interact ?
As with all other investments, choosing the right portable massage table can be a challenge. Part of the problem is that there is a wide range of options available from various retailers such as Massage Warehouse and with no experience in the matter, it can be difficult to determine which option is right for the current situation. The good news is that by asking themselves a few simple questions, it becomes much easier for therapists to sort through the various portable massage tables and find the right one for their needs. Here are some of the most important things to consider during this process.
Autism spectrum disorder is a development disability that begins to show itself in children when they are three years old or younger. Each case of autism is different, though many children really struggle with their motor skills and sensory processing. This is what makes swigs so beneficial to their development and happiness. There are a variety of autism toys, including swings, available that offer different types of movement, sensory and occupational therapy activities.
The Importance of Swings for Children with Autism
One of the major difficulties children with autism face is problems with sensory processing. Just by swinging back and forth or side to side, the child is able to calm their behavior and relax through the repetitive motion. This movement provides amazing sensory input for the child and can also help them focus and motivate them to improve in their social interactions, as well as encouraging better communication skills. Autism swings are often used as part of sensory integration therapy, including helping with visual processing, the vestibular system and proprioception.
Incontinence can understandably be a very sensitive issue for people living with it, but it is actually a very common and prevalent medical problem. Adults dealing with this type of challenge need to have products and supplies available that will keep them safe and comfortable. An increasing number of consumers are looking to online sources for their incontinence products. There are many advantages that come with choosing this shopping method.
Finding the Perfect Fit
Most physical stores are not going to have the shelf space to offer a wide range of adult incontinence supplies. They will often have maybe one or two brands, and not much in terms of variety of sizes or styles.
Online retailers often have a lot more freedom and flexibility when it comes to their inventory. They often work directly with the manufacturers of these products, and essentially have entire warehouses of space available to fill with different types of products.